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Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra

Giuliana VILLA





office: +390521905370



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Curriculum vitae

Laurea in Scienze Geologiche, Università degli Studi di Parma,  Nov.1977 (110/110).

1987: Funzionario at the University of Parma.

1989-CNR Fellowship at Florida State University (Prof. S.W. Wise), Fall semester

1990, 1992 Fall semesters at the Florida State University (Prof. S.W. Wise),

2000 Ricercatore confermato at the University of Parma, Settore scientifico disciplinare GEO/01.

2002 Associate Professor at the University of Parma SSD GEO01.

1993-96: "Friendship Programs Committee" member of SEPM Association.

1997 February: micropaleontologist of the oceanographic cruise on Royal Scientific Vassel Discovery, of the Southampton Oceanographic Centre (SOC), Madeira Basin, Atlantic Ocean.

1997 -micropaleontologist to the Cape RobertsProject (CRP1), McMurdo Station Antarctica.

1998 - micropaleontologist at CRP-2, McMurdo Station Antarctica.

1998-Present: Curator of the only Italian nannofossil collection of the Microfossil Reference Collection, samples from DSDP and ODP oceanographic cruises.

2002 Convenor of the 9th International Nannoplankton Association (INA) Conference, Parma.

2004-2008: Ina Council Members at Large.

2005-present: member of the editorial board of the Journal of Nannofossil Research

2012-2013 coordinator of the PhD course in Earth Science
Co-editor for the proceedings of the INA9 conference that will be edited on Mar. Micropaleont.

Referee of PNRA (programma Nazionale Ricerche Antartide) and MIUR-Prin projects.
Referee activity for italian and international scientific journals (Geosphere, Palaeogeography  Palaeoclimatology Palaeoecology, Marine Micropaleontology, Micropaleontology, Scientific Results of the Ocean Drilling Program, Global and Planetary Change, Geobios, Atti Ticinensi di Sc. della Terra, Rivista Italiana di Paleontologia e Stratigrafia).

Research Projects

Funded projects of the last 10 years:

  • 2003-2005 Principal investigator of the University of Parma for the PRIN project, national responsible Prof. Isabella Premoli Silva.
  • 2006 2007: Principal Italian investigator for the Paleontology of the international project Andrill of perforations in Antarctica. PNRA
  • 2005-2007: Principal investigator of the University of Parma for the PRIN project, national responsible Prof. Isabella Premoli Silva.
  • 2007-2009: Principal investigator of the University of Parma for the PRIN project, national responsible Prof. Isabella Premoli Silva/Elisabetta Erba.
  • 2009 P.I. of a contract on micropaleontology between University of Parma and Petrobras Brazil
  • 2010-2012 Responsible of the Parma Unit for the MELTSTORM project funded byPNRA (P.I. M. Rebesco, OGS)
  • 2013-16  P.I. of a project on Biostratigraphic analyses of Eocene and Oligo-Miocene sections of Campos and Santos Basins ; coordinator of five projects between University of  Parma and Petrobras Brazil
  • 2014-2016 – CORIBAR-IT Ice dynamics and meltwater deposition in the NW Barents Sea, funded by PNRA (P.I. Renata Lucchi, OGS)

Research themes

My research is based on calcareous nannofossils, among the smallest microfossils preserved in marine sediments and major constituent of carbonate sediments from the Late Triassic through Recent. I am currently following projects to examine the Eocene to Miocene nannofossil biostratigraphy, through quantitative methods to define the most reliable bioevents of Antarctica - Southern Ocean, and of oceanic temperate regions. Relationships of nannofossil abundance to surface water fertility and paleotemperature are used to outline paleoceanographic reconstructions. Holocene nannoplankton is also subject of study in the Barents Sea, as a tool for biostratigraphic and paleoecological reconstruction within the International Coribar Project intended to recognize the Ice dynamics and meltwater deposition in the NW Barents Sea (PI Lucchi, Italian PNRA project).



  • 2014 - Villa, G. Fioroni C.,, Persico D., Roberts A. P.,, Florindo F. (2014). Middle Eocene to Late Oligocene Antarctic Glaciation/Deglaciation and Southern Ocean productivity. Paeloceanography.  Volume 29, Issue 3, 223-237.
  • 2014 - Persico- D., Villa G. and Ladner B.. Size variations of Reticulofenestra oamaruensis (Deflandre in Deflandre & Fert, 1954) Stradner in Haq, 1968, emended. Revue de Micropaléontologie.
  • 2014 - Bosboom, R.,Dupont-Nivet, G.,Grothe, A.,Brinkhuis, H.,Villa, G.,Mandic, O.,Stoica, M.,Kouwenhoven, T.,Huang, W.,Yang, W.,Guo, Z.Timing, cause and impact of the late Eocene stepwise sea retreat from the Tarim Basin (west China). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, Vol. 403, 101-118
  • 2013 Persico, D., Villa, G.A new Oligocene-Miocene calcareous nannofossil species: Pontosphaera wallacei. Revue de Micropaleontologie. Vol. 56, Issue 3, 97-102.
  • 2013 - Lucchi R.G., Camerlenghi A., Rebesco M., Colmenero-Hildago E., Sierro F.J., Sagnotti L., Urgeles R., Melis R., Morigi C., Barcena M-A., Giorgetti G., Villa G., Persico D., Flores J-A., Pedrosa M.T., Macri P., and Caburlotto A.- Postglacial  Sedimentary Processes on the Storfjorden and Kveithola Trough Mouth Fans:Impact of Extreme Glacimarine Sedimentation. Global and Planetary Change Vol. 111,  309-326.
  • 2013 - Gallagher S.J., Villa G.,. Drysdale R.N., Wade B.S.,Scher, H. Li Q. Wallace,. Holdgate G. R. - A near-field sea level record of east antarctic ice sheet instability from 32 to 27 Myr. Paleoceanography Vol. 28,1, 2013, 1-13
  • 2013 - Bosboom R., Dupont-Nivet G. Grothe A., Brinkhuis H., Villa G., Mandic O., Stoica M., Huang W., Yang W., Guo Z. & Krijgsman W.. - Linking Tarim sea retreat (west China) and Asian aridification in the late Eocene. Basin Research  26, 1–20, doi: 10.1111/bre.12054
  • 2012 Persico D., Fioroni C., Villa G. - A refined calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy for the middle Eocene–early Oligocene Southern Ocean ODP sites.Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 335-336, 12–23. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2011.05.017
  • 2012 - Wilson G.S., Levy R.H, Naish T.R. et al. Neogene tectonic and climatic evolution of the Western Ross Sea, Antarctica – chronology of events from the AND-1B drill hole. Global and Planetary Change 96–97 (2012) 189–203.
  • 2012 - Villa, G. Persico D., Wise S. W, Gadaleta A. - Calcareous nannofossil evidence for Marine Isotope Stage 31 (1 Ma) in theAND-1B Core, ANDRILL McMurdo Ice Shelf Project (Antarctica). Global and Planetary Change 96–97 (2012) 75–86 doi:10.1016/j.gloplacha.2009.12.003.
  • 2012 - Fioroni C. , Villa G. , Persico D., Wise S.W. and Pea L.- Revised Middle Eocene-Upper Oligocene Calcareous Nannofossil Biozonation For The Southern Ocean. Revue de Micropaleontologie, 55, 53-70.doi:10.1016/j.revmic.2012.03.001
  • 2011 - Bosboom, R.E., Dupont-Nivet, G., Houben, Brinkhuis H., Villa., G., Mandic, O., Stoica, M., Zachariasse W.J., ZhaoJie Guo, ChuanXin Li, & Krijgsman W.- Late Eocene sea retreat from the Tarim Basin (west China) and concomitant Asian paleoenvironmental change. Paleo Paleo, Paleo, 299, 385–398.
  • 2011 -  Roberts  A. P., Florindo F., Villa G., Chang L., Jovane L., Bohaty S. M.,  Larrasoaña J. C. Nutrient limitation of magnetotactic bacteria abundance in pelagic marine environments. Earth Planetary Science  Letters 310 441–452.
  • 2008 - Villa G., Lupi C., Cobianchi M., Florindo F., Pekar  S.F. -A Pleistocene Warming Event at 1 Ma in Prydz Bay, East Antarctica: Evidence from ODP Site 1165. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 260, 230-244. doi:10.1016/j.palaeo.2007.08.017
  • 2008 - Villa G., Fioroni C., Pea L., Bohaty S.M., Persico D.. Middle Eocene – Late Oligocene climate variability: Calcareous Nannofossil response at Kerguelen Plateau, Site 748. Mar. Micropaleont., 69, 173-192.
  • 2008 - PersicoD. and Villa G. - A new Eocene Chiasmolithus species: hypothetic reconstruction of the phyletic lineage. Journal of Nannoplankton Research, 30 (1) 23-33.
  • 2006 - Villa G., Persico D.. Late Oligocene climatic changes: Evidence from calcareous nannofossils at Kerguelen Plateau Site 748 (Southern Ocean). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 231, 1-2, 110-119.
  • 2005 - G. Villa, S. Palandri, S. W. Wise - Quaternary Calcareous Nannofossils from Periantarctic Basins: Paleoecological and Paleoclimatic Implications. Mar. Micropaleontol. 56, 103– 121.
  • 2004 Wise S.W:, Bybell L:M:, Covington J.M., de kaenel E.,Ladner B.C., Maiorano P., McGonigal K.L., Milliman D.D:, Muza J.P., Pospichal J.J., Self Trail J., von Salis K., Villa G., Wei W. Cenozoic nannoware Database version 2004
  • 2004 Persico D. and Villa G. - Eocene-Oligocene calcareous nannofossils from Maud Rise and Kerguelen  Plateau (Antarctica): paleoecological and paleoceanographic implications. Mar. Micropaleontol., 52, 153-179.
  • 2004 G. Villa , J. Lees, P. Bown. Calcareous nannofossil palaeoecology and palaeoceanographic reconstruction. In: Villa G. et al. (Eds.) Mar. Micropaleontol. 52.
  • 2003 - G. Villa, D. Persico, M.C. Bonci,C. Morigi, R. Lucchi, M. Rebesco.Biostratigraphic Characterization and Quaternary Microfossil Palaeoecology in Sediment Drifts West of the Antarctic Peninsula - Implications for Cyclic Glacial-Interglacial Deposition. Palaeo, Palaeo, Palaeo, 198, 237-263.
  • 2002 -Wilson G.S., Lavelle M., McIntosh W. C.., Roberts A. P.,. Harwood D. M , Villa G., Bohaty S. M., Fielding C. R., Florindo F., Naish T. R., Sagnotti L., Scherer R. P., Verosub K. L., Watkins D. K.. Integrated chronostratigraphic calibration of the Oligocene-Miocene boundary at 24.0 ± 0.1 Ma from the CRP-2A drill core, Ross Sea, Antarctica.  Geology, v.30, 11, 1043-1046
  • 2002 Lucchi, M. Rebesco, A. Camerlenghi, M. Busetti, L. Tomadin, G. Villa, D. Persico, C. Morigi, M. C. Bonci and G. Giorgetti. Mid-late Pleistocene glacimarine sedimentary processes of a high-latitude, deep-sea sediment drift (Antarctic Peninsula Pacific margin), Mar. Geol. 189, 3-4: 343-370
  • 2002 – Villa G. e Cape Roberts Science Team. From Cape Roberts Project: carotaggi per la ricostruzione dell’evoluzione tettonica e climatica dell’Antartide. Atti del Convegno “L’Italia in Antartide”, Parma Maggio 2001, p. 141-154.
  • 2002 - Villa G. and Persico D. - Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of the Ostia and Scabiazza Sandstones (Val Trebbia, Val Ceno, Val Taro, Northern Apennines, Italy): a key to a Cretaceous tectono-stratigraphic interpretation. Boll. Soc. Geol. It., Vol Spec. n.1, 629-639.
  • 2002 - Persico D. e Villa G. - Problematic side views of Eprolithus:comparison with Micula decussata. Journ Nannopl. Res. 23-1, 15-25.
  • 2002 - Busetti M., Caburlotto A., Armand L., Damiani D., Giorgetti G.,Lucchi R. G., Quilty P.G., Villa G.. Plio-Quaternary sedimentation on the Wilkes Land Continental Rise. Preliminary results. Deep Sea ResearchII, 50-8-9, 1529-1562.
  • 2001- Naish T.,  Woolfe K.J,  P.J. Barrett, G. S. Wilson, C. Atkins, S.M. Bohathy, C.J. Bücker, M.Claps, F. J. Davey, G. Dunbar, A.G. Dunn, C.R. Fielding, F. Florindo|, M.J. Hannah, D. M. Harwood, S. A. Henrys, L. A. Krissek, M. Lavelle, J.van der Meer, W.C. McIntosh, F. Niessen, S. Passchier, R.D. Powell, A.P. Roberts, L. Sagnotti, R.P. Scherer, C. P. Strong, F. Talarico, K.L. Verosub, G. Villa, D.K. Watkins, P.N. Webb& T. Wonik. Orbitally induced oscillations in the East Antarctic Ice Sheet at the Oligocene-Miocene boundary. Nature, vol. 413, Oct. 2001.
  • 2001 Barrett, P.J., Ricci, C.A., Bucker, C.J., Davey, F.J., Ehrmann, W., Laird, M.G., Van der Meer, J.J.M., Raine, J.I., Smellie, J.L., Talarico, F., Thomson, M.R.A., Verosub, K.L., Villa, G. (Eds.). Studies from the Cape Roberts Project, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Scientific Report of CRP-3: Part II. Palaeontological Studies, Provenance and Climate From Petrology, Chronology and Chronostratigraphy, Terra Antart., vol. 8 (4), pp. 309– 621.
  • 2001 Barrett, P.J., Ricci, C.A., Bu¨cker, C.J., Davey, F.J., Ehrmann, W., Laird, M.G., Van der Meer, J.J.M., Raine, J.I., Smellie, J.L., Talarico, F., Thomson, M.R.A., Verosub, K.L., Villa, G. (Eds.). Studies from the Cape Roberts Project, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Scientific Report of CRP-3: Part I. Geophysics and Tectonic Studies, Sedimentary Environments, Terra Antart., vol. 8 (3), pp. 119– 308.
  • 2001 - Watkins D.K., Wise S. & Villa G. -  Calcareous nannofossils from Cape Roberts 3. Terra Antartica, 8: 339-346
  • 2001 - Raine J.I., Thomson M.R.A. & Villa G. - Introduction Palaeontological studies for CRP-3. - Studies from the Cape Roberts Project, Ross Sea, Antarctica. Scientific Results from CRP-3 - Part II Terra Antartica.8 (3), 309.
  • 2000 G.S. Wilson, S.M. Bohaty, C.R. Fielding F. Florindo, M.J. Hannah, D.M. Harwood, W.Macintosh, T.R. Naish, A.P. Robert, L. Sagnotti, R.P. Scherer, C.P. Strong  , K.L. Verosub, G. Villa, D.K. Watkins, P.-N. Webb & K.J. Woolfe. Chronostratigraphy of CRP-2/2A, Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica. Terra Antartica 7, 647-664.
  • 2000 - Negri A. e Villa G. - Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy, biochronology and paleoecology at the Tortonian/Messinian boundary of the Faneromeni section (Crete). Paleo.Paleo. Paleo, 156, 195-209.
  • 2000 - Hilgen F.J., Bissoli L., Iaccarino S., KrijgsmanW., NegriA. and Villa G. - Integrated stratigraphy  and  astrochronology  of the Messinian GSSP at Oued Akresh (Atlantic Morocco). Earth Planet. Sc. Letter. 182, 237-251.
  • 2000 - F.J. Hilgen, S. Iaccarino, W. KrijgsmanG. Villa, C.G. Langereis, and W.J. Zachariasse. - The Global Standard Stratotype-section and Point (GSSP) of the Messinian Stage (uppermost Miocene). Episodes , 172-178.
  • 2000 - D.K. Watkins & G. Villa. Palaeogene Calcareous Nannofossils from CRP-2/2A,Victoria Land Basin, Antarctica Terra Antartica,, 7(3/4), p.443-452.
  • 1999 - W. Krijgsman, C.G. Langereis, W.J. Zachariasse M. Boccaletti, G. Moratti,  R. Gelati,  S. Iaccarino, G. Papani, G. Villa, - Late Neogene evolution of the  Taza-Guercif Basin (Rifian CorridorNE- Morocco); and implications for the  Messinian salinity crisis. Marine Geology 153 147-160.
  • 1999 - Cape Roberts Science Team (**) - Studies from the Cape Roberts Project, Ross Sea, Antarctica - Initial Report on CRP-2/2A. Terra Antartica, Vol. 6 (1,2).
  • 1998 Hambrey M. J., Wise S.W. Barrett P.J., Davey F.J. Ehrmann W.U., Smellie J.L., Villa G., Woolfe K.J. (Eds). Studies from Cape Roberts Project, Ross Sea, Antartica: Scientific Report of CRP1. Terra Antartica, 5 (3) 255-713
  • 1998 - Villa G. e Zanzucchi G.- Biostratigrafia a nannofossili calcarei delle Arenarie di Casanova e rapporti con il Flysch ad Elmintoidi (Liguridi esterne, Appennino Settentrionale), Acta Nat. Ateneo Parm. 33, 71-83
  • 1998 - VillaG. eWise  S.W., -  Quaternary calcareous nannofossils from the Antarctic region. Terra Antartica, 5(3), 479-484.
  • 1998 - Villa G. & Wise S.W. Introduction to Biostratigraphy and Palaeoecology Chapter, Terra Antartica, 5 (3)
  • 1998 - Vescovi P., Villa G. e Barbieri G. - L'Unità tettonica Groppo Sovrano -alta Val Bratica (PR)- Atti Ticinensi di Sc. della Terra.
  • 1998 - De Kaenel Eric e Villa G. - Helicosphaera carteri: a further note on its stratigraphical occurrence. JNR, 20, 2.
  • 1998 - Cape Roberts Scientific Team. Summary results from CRP-1, Cape Roberts Project, Antarctica. Initial Reports on CRP-1, Terra Antartica, 5 (1), 125-137
  • 1998 - Cape Roberts Scientific Team. Quaternary Strata in CRP-1, Cape Roberts Project, Antarctica. Initial Reports on CRP-1, Terra Antartica, 5 (1), 31-62
  • 1998 - Cape Roberts Scientific Team. Miocene Strata in CRP-1, Cape Roberts Project, Antarctica. Initial Reports on CRP-1, Terra Antartica, 5 (1), 63-124
  • 1998 - Cape Roberts Scientific Team . Back ground to CRP-1, Cape Roberts Project, Antarctica. Initial Reports on CRP-1, Terra Antartica, 5 (1), 1-30
  • 1997 Steininger F.F., Aubry M.P., Berggren W.A., Biolzi M., Borsetti A.M., Cartlidge J., Cati F., Corfield R., Gelati R., Iaccarino S., Napoleone C., Ottner F., Rogl R., Spezzaferri S., Tateo F., Villa G., and Zevenboom D.- The Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP) for the base of the neogene. Episodesvol. 20, n.1
  • 1997 - Costa E., Di Giulio A., Plesi G., Villa G., & Baldini C. - I Flysch Oligo-Miocenici della trasversale Toscana meridionale-Casentino: dati biostratigrafici  e petrografici.Atti Ticinensi di Sc. della Terra, 39, 281-302
  • 1996 Aubry M.P. e Villa G. Calcareous nannofossil stratigraphy of the Lemme-Carrosio Paleogene-Neogene Global Stratotype Section and Point (NW Italy). Giorn di Geol., 58 1/2, 51-69
  • 1996 - De Kaenel E. & Villa G. - Oligocene/Miocene calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy and paleoecology from the Iberia Abyssal Plain, Northeastern Atlantic. ODP Sc. Results, 149, 79-145.
  • 1996 - Concheyro A., Villa G. Maestrichtian-Danain (K/P) calcareous nannofossils in the Liumalal section. Northern Patagonia, Argentina. Paleopelagos 6, 281-197
  • 1995 - Turco E., Duranti D. Iaccarino S. & Villa G., 1994. Relationships between foraminiferal biofacies and lithofacies in the Oligocene Molare Formation and Rigoroso Marls: preliminary results from the Piota river section (Tertiary Piedmont Basin, NW Italy). Giornale di Geologia 56, 2, 101-117.
  • 1995 - Mochi E., Plesi G. e Villa G. - Biostratigrafia a nannofossili calcarei della parte basale della successione del M. Modino (nell'area dei Fogli 234 e 2359) ed evoluzione strutturale dell'Unità omonima.Studi Geologici Camerti.
  • 1995 - Costa E., Frati G. e Villa G., 1995 - Note illustrative della Carta Geologico-stutturale delle Liguridi esterne nell'area tra la Media Val Ceno e la Val d' Arda (Provv. di Parma e Piacenza). Atti Tic. Sc.Terra, 38., 3-29.
  • 1994 - Young J., Flores J.A., Wei W.,  and Backman J., Hamrsmid B., van Heck S., Krhovsky J., Raffi I., di Stefano A., Villa G., Wise W. - A summary chart of Neogene nannofossil magnetobiostratigraphy. Journal of Nannoplankton research 16, 1.
  • 1994 - Gaboardi S., Reale V., Iaccarino S:, Monechi S: & Villa G.- Paleontological response to the sea-level change in depositional sequences of the Figols Allogroup between the Isabena and the Esera Valleys. The Eastern sector of the South-Central Pyrenean Foreland: Criteria for stratigraphic Analysis and Excursion Notes. Second hight-resolution sequence stratigraphy conference. Mutti et al. (Eds.) June 1994, Spain.
  • 1994 - Cobianchi M., Galbiati B. & Villa G. - Stratigraphy of the Palombini Shales in the Bracco Unit (Northern Apennine).Ofioliti, 19, 2a, 193-216.
  • 1994 - Channell J.E.T., Poli S., Rio D. Sprovieri R., Villa G. - Magnetic stratigraphy and biostratigraphy of the "Argille Azzurre" (Northern Apennines, Italy)  ). Paleo.Paleo, Paleo, 110, 83-102.
  • 1994 -  D. Fontana, Spatafora E., Stefani C., Stocchi S., Tateo F., G., Villa G. & Zuffa G.G.. The Upper Cretaceous Helminthoid Flysch of the Northern Apennines: provenance and sedimentation. Mem Soc. Geol. It. 48, 237-250.
  • 1993 - Villa G. and Wei W. Paleogene Calcareous nannofossil biostratigraphy of DSDP Site 210 offshore Northeastern Australia. Proc. ODP Sci. Results 133: 799-785.
  • 1992 Costa E. Plesi G., Di Giulio A & Villa G. - Caratteri biostratigrafici e petrografici del Macigno lungo la trasversale Cinque Terre-Val Gordana-M.Sillara (Appennino Settentrionale): Implicazioni sull'evoluzione tettono-sedimentaria. Studi Geol. Camerti, Vol. Spec. CROP 1, 229-248.
  • 1992 - Wei W.,  Villa G. and Wise S.W. - Paleoceanographic implication of the Eocene-Oligocene calcareous nannofossils from ODP Sites 711 and 748 in the Indian Ocean. Proc. ODP Sci. Results 120, 979-999.
  • 1992 - G. Olafsson & Villa G. - Reliability of Sphenoliths as zonal markers in Oligocene sediments from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, Mem. Ist. Geol. Padova  261-275.
  • 1992 - Cobianchi M. & Villa G. - Biostratigrafia del Calcare a Calpionelle e delle Argille a Palombini nella sezione di Statale  (Val Graveglia Appennino Ligure). Atti Ticinensi Sc Terra  35, 199-211.
  • 1992 - Cassola P., Gianmarino S., Puglisi D: & Villa G. - Nuovi dati sedimentologico-petrografici e biostratigrafici sulla formazione di Piedimonte (Sicilia Nord Orientale).Mem. Soc. Geol. It. 47.
  • 1992 - Cassola P., Costa E., Loiacono F., Moretti E., Morlotti E., Puglisi D. & Villa G. - New sedimentologic, petrographic, biostratigraphic and structural data on the Reitano Flysch (Maghrebian Chain, Sicily). Riv. It. Paleont. Strat. 205-228.
  • 1991 Villa G - Biostratigrafia a nannofossili calcarei delle Arenarie di Ostia nella localita' tipo e nella zona di Berceto (Prov. Parma). Mem. Descr. Carta Geol It,  XLVI, 433-443.
  • 1990 - Rio  D., Raffi  I., Villa G. - Pliocene - Pleistocene Calcareous  Nannofossil distribution patterns  in  the Western  Mediterranean.  In  Kasten K.,  Mascle  al, Proc. ODP, Sci.Results, 107: 513-533.
  • 1990 - Fornaciari E., Raffi I., Rio D., Villa G. Olafsson, , G J. Backman - Quantitative distribution pattern of Oligocene and Miocene calcareous nannofossils from western equatorial Indian Ocean.  Proc. ODP Sci. Results 115,  237-254.